Archive | December, 2008

Shiva – The destroyer

30 Dec

Advertisements

Pak hacker attacks E Rlys site, threatens cyber war on India

25 Dec

Thu, Dec 25 02:39 AM

In the first instance of cyber attack on Indian government websites, the attack on Eastern Railways site on Wednesday popped open vulnerability of government websites in the country.

While Eastern Railway took almost two and half hours to restore the site to normalcy, visitors to the site continued to be attacked by Trojan virus. ER officials could only primarily trace the roots to Toronto in Canada after repeated top-brass meetings all through the day.

As spotted by FE in the morning, the official site of the Eastern Railway-www.eastern railway.gov.in—was hacked on Wednesday. When opened, the scroll on the site— which normally consists of official announcements—had unusual notes. The first note read: “Cyber war has been declared on Indian cyberspace by Whackerz- Pakistan (24 Dec-2008).” This was followed by two other notes: “Indians hit hard by Zaid Hamid” and “We are f**ked up Indians. You are hacked.”

When clicked, the scroll opened into a new window which claimed that ‘Mianwalian of Whackerz” has hacked the site in response to the air violation of Pakistan. It also claimed that it will continue to hack more Indian military and government sites. The threat note also claimed that servers of Indian financial institutions will also be hacked with the help of the group’s members working in computer departments of “foreign companies”. Data belonging to “Indian nationals (only Hindus)” will be destroyed eventually, it added.

Another threat note asked the visitors of the website to watch the real Indian conspiracy in Mumbai attacks on the website-www.brasstacks.pk. Brasstacks claims to be “a unique Pakistani think tank devoted to the study of regional and global political events and their implications for Pakistan’s security and interests.” The note ended with the slogan “Long live Pakistan”.

The third note, which showed the hackers’ apathy towards India, Israel and USA, challenged Indians to save their ‘motherland’ from turning into pieces.

When contacted, ER officials seemed unaware of the entire incident and the site remained as it is for almost an hour, till 11.40am, after which ER blocked it. The website resumed to normalcy after 12, when the threat notes in the scroll as well as in the news and events section were removed.

“Our sites have cyber security certificate from US-based Thawte,” said an ER official. “We have informed the service provider and will get a detailed response from them only after 24 hours,” he added.

According to a cyber security expert, similar attacks can be done through SQL injection method. In case of a SQL injection attack, webpages with active content like feedback forms are used. Attackers can write malicious commands in the forms through a rich text format and get control over the database of the target site.

Indus Valley Civilization

24 Dec

Indus valley Civilization which flourished in north-western part of indian subcontinent, across the banks of river Indus and thus is known as the indus valley civilization.

Some of the key characteristics of Indus valley civilization are

  • It flourished in the time period – 2600 B.C. to 1900 B.C.
  • It was one of the three oldest civilizations of the world.The other two being Egyptian and Mesopotamian Civilizations. All three were interconnected with a trade route.
  • It started in the era 5500 B.C with Neolithic pottery, which have been found in Mehrgarh.
  • Horses were absent in India at that time. Bull was predominantly indian animal. These were exchanged in trade between sumerians and indians

Quoting from wikipedia

According to some archaeologists, over 500 Harappan sites have been discovered along the dried up river beds of the Ghaggar-Hakra River and its tributaries,[28] in contrast to only about 100 along the Indus and its tributaries;[29] consequently, in their opinion, the appellation Indus Ghaggar-Hakra civilisation or Indus-Saraswati civilisation is justified. However, these politically inspired arguments are disputed by other archaeologists who state that the Ghaggar-Hakra desert area has been left untouched by settlements and agriculture since the end of the Indus period and hence shows more sites than found in the alluvium of the Indus valley; second, that the number of Harappan sites along the Ghaggar-Hakra river beds have been exaggerated and that the Ghaggar-Hakra, when it existed, was a tributary of the Indus, so the new nomenclature is redundant.[30] “Harappan Civilization” remains the correct one, according to the common archaeological usage of naming a civilization after its first findspot.

Cities

A sophisticated and technologically advanced urban culture is evident in the Indus Valley Civilization making them the first urban centers in the region. The quality of municipal town planning suggests the knowledge of urban planning and efficient municipal governments which placed a high priority on hygiene, or, alternately, accessibility to the means of religious ritual.

This urban plan included the world’s first urban sanitation systems

Within the city, individual homes or groups of homes obtained water from wells. From a room that appears to have been set aside for bathing, waste water was directed to covered drains, which lined the major streets. Houses opened only to inner courtyards and smaller lanes.

The ancient Indus systems of sewerage and drainage that were developed and used in cities throughout the Indus region were far more advanced than any found in contemporary urban sites in the Middle East and even more efficient than those in many areas of Pakistan and India today. The advanced architecture of the Harappans is shown by their impressive dockyards, granaries, warehouses, brick platforms and protective walls. The massive walls of Indus cities most likely protected the Harappans from floods and may have dissuaded military conflicts

There is no conclusive evidence of palaces or temples—or of kings, armies, or priests. Some structures are thought to have been granaries. Found at one city is an enormous well-built bath, which may have been a public bath. Although the citadels were walled, it is far from clear that these structures were defensive. They may have been built to divert flood waters.

Among the artifacts discovered were beautiful glazed faïence beads. Steatite seals have images of animals, people (perhaps gods) and other types of inscriptions, including the yet un-deciphered writing system of the Indus Valley Civilization. Some of the seals were used to stamp clay on trade goods and most probably had other uses as well.

Science

They were among the first to develop a system of uniform weights and measures. Their measurements are said to be extremely precise. Their smallest division, which is marked on an ivory scale found in Lothal, was approximately 1.704 mm, the smallest division ever recorded on a scale of the Bronze Age.

Harappan engineers followed the decimal division of measurement for all practical purposes, including the measurement of mass as revealed by their hexahedron weights.

These chert weights were in a perfect ratio of 4:2:1 with weights of 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, and 500 units, with each unit weighing approximately 28 grams, similar to the English Imperial ounce or Greek uncia, and smaller objects were weighed in similar ratios with the units of 0.871.

The weights and measures later used in Kautilya’s Arthashastra (4th century BCE) are the same as those used in Lothal.

Unique Harappan inventions include an instrument which was used to measure whole sections of the horizon and the tidal lock.

Some new techniques in metallurgy and produced copper, bronze, lead and tin. The engineering skill of the Harappans was remarkable, especially in building docks after a careful study of tides, waves and currents.

ater, in April 2006, it was announced in the scientific journal Nature that the oldest (and first early Neolithic) evidence for the drilling of human teeth in vivo (i.e., in a living person) was found in Mehrgarh. Eleven drilled molar crowns from nine adults were discovered in a Neolithic graveyard in Mehrgarh that dates, from 7,500-9,000 years ago. According to the authors, their discoveries point to a tradition of proto-dentistry in the early farming cultures of that region

Religion

Some Indus valley seals show swastikas which are found in later religions and mythologies, especially in Indian religions such as Hinduism and Jainism. The earliest evidence for elements of Hinduism are present before and during the early Harappan period

Many Indus valley seals show animals. One famous seal shows a figure seated in a posture reminiscent of the Lotus position and surrounded by animals was named after Pashupati (lord of cattle), an epithet of Shiva and Rudra.

In the earlier phases of their culture, the Harappans buried their dead; however, later, especially in the Cemetery H culture of the late Harrapan period, they also cremated their dead and buried the ashes in burial urns, a transition notably also alluded to in the Rigveda.

The Indus civilization’s economy appears to have depended significantly on trade, which was facilitated by major advances in transport technology. These advances included bullock carts that are identical to those seen throughout South Asia today, as well as boats.

My Rating for Operating Systems

24 Dec

Well i have my hands on many of the operating systems basically either of Windows family and Linux family. So i will quickly review my experiences regarding them.

Windows 98 –

It was the first operating system i used..It is good for learning and playing with it. It is simple and user friendly. My rating are as follows

Security (2/10)           Appearance (4/10)    Utility(6/10)             Gaming(8/10)           User Friendly(8/10)

Windows XP

I will treat XP is best operating system till developed by Microsoft.Better than Vista. Yes it is. For its omproved appearance, utility and gaming abilities and moreover it is not so heavy that vista.However it has lot of security bugs and useless applications.

Security (4/10)           Appearance (7/10)    Utility(6/10)             Gaming(8/10)           User Friendly(6/10)

Windows Vista

The only thing Vista has improved is its security and appearance.

Security (8/10)           Appearance (7/10)    Utility(7/10)             Gaming(5/10)           User Friendly(4/10)

Ubuntu Linux

The best linux flavour i have experienced till now. It is mixture of simplicity and utility. However the basic problem with it is lack of gaming abilities.

Security (9/10)           Appearance (6/10)    Utility(8/10)             Gaming(2/10)           User Friendly(9/10)

Mandriva Linux

It is suitable for naive users as it is best implementation of linux and also contains a lots of packages.

Security (9/10)           Appearance (8/10)    Utility(9/10)             Gaming(4/10)           User Friendly(9/10)

Messed up with your MBR!!

23 Dec

This quick post will definitely help you if you have messed up with ypur MBR i.e. Master Boot Record.First of let me tell you what MBR is.

MBR or Master Boot record keeps the information about all the boot softwares ,or in laymens language we can say list of all operating systems. You mess up with your MBR when you use more than one operating  system as n case you may be using a combination of Windows and Linux.

It may be irritating sometimes as you must have installed Linux and cant boot it or in another case you must have installed linux and cant boot XP.

Now you have two options, either reformat the disk and reinstall the OS in a sequential manner or just use this software.

http://www.acronis.com/homecomputing/download/

You can use the disk editor programmes provided by the comapnies also such as Seagate provides seagate disk editor

http://www.seagate.com/www/en-us/support/downloads/

The other technique is using grub or lilo which can fix your MBR.

Hope it may have helped you